The text at hand seems to be a study on the non-representational, reflective perception of life and death and its ritual experience during antiquity, within the context of the inseparable, organic wholeness of human-Nature.

    The present text is everything that it seems to be, but not only what it seems: it is far more and at the same time beyond all these and their contemporary horizon. It is the embarkment on wording a query related to the possibility of escape from the dead end humans are facing in their relationship with Nature today; Nature is threatening very seriously the human life, the life of a human who for centuries has delineated a course and is even at the moment delineating it, a course of hypertrophic will, subjugation, doing of deeds extreme, intervention in Nature, of acts of wild exploitation of Nature, which are founded on a major errancy:on the representational certainty of the complete, absolute disunion from Nature, which has as a consequence the self-deification of human worth, of its power, its skills and the adoption of the dogma: “anything goes”.

    The question that is posed at the Appendix of the current text is whether the philosophical with paradigmatic focal point in Empedocles and the poetic with paradigmatic references in Homer, Hesiod, Euripides, and the Orphic hymns showing of the organic wholeness of human-Nature could be interpreted as an archaic simplicity or a twofold heuristic of regaining the natural sanctity of life.


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This text neither opines on the causes of the losing of philosophizing (philosophein) nor does it opine on the conditions conducive to its revealing. This text does not rule on all the above, as it does not want to dogmatize and it does not want to dogmatize, because it is permeated by the suspicion that dogmatizing obscures the horizon of questioning (aporein), and consequently of philosophizing.

This is the reason why, then, the current text is outlined in the form of seven reflexive questions on philosophizing, i.e. seven meta-questions, which are focused on the in-between of the revealing and the loss of philosophizing; therefore, the evolution of this text constitutes an atopia, an atopia though undoubtedly declarative –due to its content thereof– οf both the undisturbed will which defends the revealing of philosophizing and of that obsessive passion which strives for not losing this philosophizing itself.

The seven meta-questions of this text, refer to the following topics: whether it is necessary for philosophizing to have as its subject matter its own biopolitical space; whether the project of philosophizing should be its adjustment to the established reality or –to the contrary– its transgression; whether the fundamental condition of the existence of philosophizing is the autonomy of its imaginary from the established thinking; whether philosophizing should be a keystone of subversion or a tool for the pursuit of benefits; whether the hegemony of representation limits the heuristic of philosophizing and its abandonment further extends it; whether the non-continuous self-examination and non-periodic self-negation of philosophizing lead to totalitarianism.


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The gaze and the blood

Τhe effort of our study is to detect that other interpretative perspective for that other gaze and for that other blood, and –it is already clear– for their relationship, but also for their relationship with the commitment of the ultimate tragic act, has as its starting point, in the First Part of our study, the discourse for the gaze and for the blood, the discourse for the gaze and the blood as non-representational ontological concentrations of becoming of the life of the subject. Consequently, this effort ascertains that the gaze and the blood, these non-representational, ontological concentrations of becoming of the life of the subject, constitute the becoming of the non-representational tragic. After this ascertainment, this effort refers to the modes and the quality of becoming of the non-representational tragic that are included in ‘the human’; that is, it refers –among other issues– to the meeting of the gaze and the blood with death, within the frame of the openness of time to death.
In the Second Part of our study, the same as always effort of detecting another interpretation – perspective for that other gaze and for that other blood that have the uniqueness of power to lead the subject to achieving the ultimate tragic act, focuses on the attempt of an exemplary revealment of becoming of the non-representational tragic, through the discussion of the poetic phenomenology of the modes of becoming of the non-representational concentrations of this tragic in Medea.



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Studies in Philosophy

This collection of studies includes six essays which are a set of studies on very important aspects of the thought of Heraclitus, Plato, Nietzsche and Marcuse, confronted under an entirely new interpretative approach. This completely new interpretative approach refers to: The Platonic discussion of the problem of the relationship of moral and political theory with action (praxis), as well as the formulation of an education of reconciliation of the aesthetic of everyday life by Plato; the formulation of the philosophy of the (non reducible) multiplicity and the mask as a non-metaphysical thought on behalf of Nietzsche, as well as the concept of the world as play on behalf of Heraclitus and Nietzsche; the wording of the radical, triple, ecological philosophy (: ecology of the subject, social ecology and ecology of nature-environment) by Marcuse, in which everyday life would be transformed into an aesthetic phenomenon, the aesthetic of everyday life that can be traced back to Plato.


Romi Editions, Tsimiski 16 str., 54624, Thessaloniki, tel. 2310227581

Nietzsche. Philosopher of Multiplicity and of Mask

Our assumption, the one that finally our research also accepts, is that multiplicity is the main category of Nietzsche’s thought which ontologically is not reduced to anything else –the will to power is but the expression of unity, the unifying principle of the primarily multiple. A key notion for the examination of the assumption mentioned above is the concept of mask.

Besides that, and through our research course, the following are seen in a different perspective: not only the category of multiplicity, of the will to power, of the mask in Nietzsche’s thought but also, the relation between Nietzsche and Socrates (and Plato), the concept of tragicthe nihilism, the role of imaginationthe artthe bodythe wandering, as well as thediscourse of suspicion that allows thinking to move beyond unityand absolute to the authenticity of multiplicity and of mask; such a thinking, having become homeless (ά-οικος) –that is to say a speculation of atopia and wandering, it puts the between in the place of reconciliation, of tolerance or of synthesis; this way it itself as well as the discourse that expresses it are revealed as dangerous in many aspects – and possibly for this same reason, infinitely open and forbidden.


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The Reflective Dialectic of Speech and Violence in Thucydides

This study traces textual elements into Thucydides’ Histories, elements that lead to the emergence of another problematic concerning the reading of becoming that his work recounts. More explicitly: this study focuses on the becoming when this last bypasses or even avoids, its reduction to the universal, to the representation, in the context of pseudo-dialectic of the universal and the concrete; it is about the becoming-war, the becoming-war whose prominent references are speech and violence that allows, indeed, the potentiality to be read in a radically different way, and, consequently, to be restored as a continuum of becoming as a becoming-continuum. This reading is attempted into the context of another, entirely new, dialectic that stands far from the pseudo-dialectic of the universal and the concrete and its different forms (Platonic, Hegelian, Marxist{ic}): it is attempted into the context of a reflective dialectic that, in Histories, takes the form of the reflective dialectic of speech and violence; of the reflective dialectic not of the representations but of the crystallizations of speech and violence; the fact, though, of the revealing of this dialectic, allows, in its turn, the restoration of materiality, gravity, depth and corporeality of the perception of becoming by the subject.

 This restoration, that is succeeded through the reflective dialectic of speech and violence, seems offering the historical reality, and so, the historical potentiality to the subject of denying the reduction of perceiving the world in the superficiality and lightness of the universal / the representation as well as of denying his subduction to the universal that – as it also derives from Histories – annuls in various ways, textually, axiologically, cognitively and ontically the subject-concrete. Still, exactly because of those two reasons mentioned above, the reflective dialectic of speech and violence has the power (dynamis), and thus the potentiality (dynasthai), of being a paradigmatic scheme of achieving the social and political praxis of the subject as directand spontaneous, in the social and political becoming-war, either smartly concealed or roughly revealed war.




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Man and Nature. The Triple Perspective: Political – Moral – Aesthetical

This book consists of three essays that focus to the three fundamental aspects of Man’s relation to nature: the political, the moral and the aesthetical one.

In the first essay the field of real ecology is defined and it is clearly distinguished, politically, from that of pseudo-ecology, since it includes the ecology of the subject and social ecology as closely and intrinsically related to the ecology of nature-environment.

The second essay concerns Man’s morally deserved attitude towards the animals, through a discussion concerning the recognition of their completely underestimated – and yet, so important – right to pleasure.

In the third essay, finally, the aesthetical approach of nature is unfolded through a paradigmatic discussion, which refers to photographing the birds and to the relation that the look develops with them.


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Nietzsche’s Influence in Greece. Techni and Dionysos, Vlastos and Kazantzakis

The object of this specific study is Greek Nietzscheism. In its context, fundamental aspects of Nietzsche’s reception in Greece are examined, such as the cases of the journals «Techni» and «Dionysos» as well as those of Petros Vlastos and Nikos Kazantzakis. More explicitly, the same study, ends up into the following conclusions: the Nietzscheism of the two journals takes the form of nationalism and social inequalitarianism, even the form of social Darwinism in the case of Pavlos Nirvanas, collaborator of «Techni». Vlastos’ Nietzscheism appears as a strict social – ethnical racism and as eugenics, and along with the Nietzscheism of «Techni» and «Dionysos», it draws Kostis Palamas’ praise and admiration. Kazantzakis’ Nietzscheism is characterized by a great profoundness and uninterrupted continuity: its starting point is the author’s dissertation on Nietzsche, the next step is his admiration for Mussolini and Franco, and the ending point is his co-operation with the journal of Metaxas’ Regime, «Neolaia».

The present study subsequently shows Greek Nietzscheism as a gross misinterpretation of Nietzsche’s philosophy of multiplicity and mask, and it discusses the great deficiency of the scholarly approaches as regarding Greek Nietzscheism.

In the Appendix, the same study deals with two issues, quite relevant to Greek Nietzscheism. The first concerns Nietzsche as an ideological projection of his sister, i.e. as a nationalist and a forerunner of National Socialism philosopher. The second concerns the controversial issue of Heidegger’s relation to Nietzsche and to National Socialism; in the context of examining this issue, this study finally attempts a textual juxtaposition of the two philosophers that focuses onto the concept of homeland and the absence of homeland in a philosophical – political sense




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Philosophy and the Social Concrete: The case of Unlikeness or Difference in Plato’s Statesman

This study in its interpretative course overpasses, leaving thus behind, the Symplegades for a philosophical reading of the platonic thought that undoubtedly consisted (and still consist) on one hand, the Scylla of the boring platonisms and on the other, the Charyvdis of the monotonous anti-platonisms. The only intention of this study is to visit and talk about an absolutely existing but completely strange philosophical topos for those who are –more or less – familiar to the philosophy of platonic Socrates and to the numerous approaches to it by the platonic studies. It is about the philosophical topos through which the line of argument of another platonic philosophizing subject is revealed, that of the (Eleatic) Stranger; and it is exactly this, the Eleatic Stranger, who, in an unrivaled tension and great variety of ways treats the relation between philosophy and social concrete through the investigation of three themes that have to do correspondingly with: the relation of the statesman – and of the statesmanship – to the unlikeness or difference, to the discussion about the unlikeness or difference itself and, finally, to the relation of philosophy to unlikeness or difference – but also vice versa, to the relation of the unlikeness and difference to philosophy. The discussion of all this philosophical themes by the Eleatic Stranger, is, always according to him, identical to the more dialectical and more heuristic thinking than that of dialectical heuristics, the starting point of which is the Statesman.


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Introduction to a Rhetoric Challenging the Value of Abolishing Difference

This text is primarily and mainly the Introduction to a rhetoric challenging the value of abolishing difference; this rhetoric reassuringly pre-announces that the lecturer of the rhetoric will not be the philosophical discourse as a defender of the difference but horror itself. Furthermore, this same text accompanies the specific Introduction with two examples – among of course various others – of this rhetoric: the minor analytic and the minor systematic of horror, through which it emerges and it speaks – without accusative or defending intermediatings – the horror of abolishing difference and nothing else but that.



 Book Institute Editions – A. Kardamitsas, 8 Ippocratous Str., 106 79 Athens, Greece, tel. + 30 (210) 3615156

The subject of Power: Callicles, Nietzsche, Negri

In this study it is left free to be unfolded this kind of philosophical thought that has stubbornly denied to be enlisted into the framed area of monotonous misinterpretation, of the long aged silence or of the almost furious condemnation as far as it concerns the praxis (and the concept) of the subject of power. Absolutely on the contrary: this same philosophical thought, having accepted as indispensable prerequisite of freedom and of creation, the activity (praxis) of the subject of power, is opened to the horizon of discourse concerning this subject, focusing its eye-sight to the three, perhaps most ‘notorious’ figures of history of philosophy: Callicles, Nietzsche and Negri.

Book Institute Editions – A. Kardamitsas, 8 Ippocratous Str., 106 79 Athens, Greece, tel. + 30 2103615156



Tension, Subject, Society. Philosophical Remarks on Foucault’s “Stultifera Navis”

«Stultifera Navis», Foucault’s privileged primary, first, extensive reference to madness, to the history of madness, is it merely but a theme about madness? Or is it at the same time, a privileged narration and a primary reference to the history of tension?

This question constitutes the fundamental starting point of this study, i.e. the completely different beginning of the genealogical approach as far as it concerns tension, onto the study of which a study is dedicated for the first time. In the context of this study, in a totally new perspective, this of tension and their relation to it, there is an attempt to be discussed firstly, image, literature and also an exemplary series of social practices (: the estrangement, the confinement, the philosophical, religious and moral annihilation of the subject of tension).

      In addition, there is an attempt to examine a variety of themes that concern the relation of tension to the subject; in these themes that consist the questions of tension and underline furthermore its importance, may be enlisted: the dialectic of imagination and tension, the attraction and fear as the charm of the subject of the presence of tension, the un-reconciled tension qua the limitless desire and its negation, this non tension – man, the arbitrariness of the absence of tension as well as the relation of tension to the existence, the time and the discourse on sex.

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The Anxiety of Negation in Marcuse or the Foundations of his Social Philosophy

The Anxiety of Negation in Marcuse. Or On the Foundations of his Social Philosophy. What does it mean that the anxiety of negation consists the foundation of Marcuse’s social philosophy? What does it already mean that negation consists the foundation of a social philosophy? In order to answer these questions we must first answer the most primal one: what does negation mean in Marcuse? And how does the thought of negation in the same philosopher emerge as an anxiety of negation?

In order to answer this critical question, in this study we search all those issues that consist causes and modes of the anxiety of negation; causes such as: the attempt of establishing negation as anxiety, the absence of negation within the Advanced Industrial Society; modes such as: the risking of the Great Refusal qua extent (from Negation to negations) and qua tension between the individual and the universal. It is also examined the utmost attempt that concerns the anxiety of negation which is the risking of the universal; this risking marks the transition from the problem of Great Refusal to the problem of Great Risking, taken primarily as revealing and accepting participating into the play of the anonymous aspects of the indefinite other, for the sake of liberation.

This risking of the universal that moves far beyond the anxiety of negation (whose limit is the non-risking of the universal), this participation into the Great Risking, is not just another conceptualization-abstraction, namely, another aspect of philosophy about / in favour of difference but an acceptance of participating into the play of revealing the other, an acceptance which is attempted to be achieved through the aesthetic retreatment of philosophy in favour of the concrete. This exodus of philosophy towards the aesthetic, in favour of the concrete, allows to the concrete-difference to be released, free of philosophy, into the realm of aesthetic, which is conceived in its non repressive use and represents the permanent non-identity between subject and object, individual and individual; this fact can lead the concrete to liberation and autonomy. This exodus or retreatment, therefore, of philosophy serves the primal aim of Marcuse’s philosophical thought that is the real liberation of the individual and the society. In this case, the being of the becoming of this real autonomy of the individual and of this real liberation of the society, which is the Great Risking, is consisted by three plays – riskings: the play between the forces of the metasocial and the social, within the individual, with regard to the relationship between the individual and society, with regard to the relationship between man and nature.

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Desire and Tragedy. The Late Platonic Anthropology, Prologue C.I. Despotopoulos

By the term Desire it is stated the entrance of platonic philosophical discourse in the consequence of the facts of appearance and replenishment of desire, as the final object of the primal concern of the last platonic anthropology, which is – basically – the defense of difference in the intro-subjective area; this entrance is nothing but the core of a new policy concerning the self that opens a very deep rupture from the previous platonic thought and from the up-to-Plato’s-time cultural facts.

By the term Tragedy, there is a reference to the critical consequences of the primal concern of the last platonic anthropology: there is a reference to the concern of defending the difference, i.e. of achieving the reconciliation that takes the form of an attempt to achieve an aesthetic representation of reconciliation in daily life; by this same term, there is a reference to the realization of the paradoxes and problems of philosophical discourse – intrinsically related to the concern of defending difference – and to the attempt of Plato’s thought to transcend them; all those elements constitute the category of tragic, of a tragic art rival to the poets conception of tragedy, a new conception of tragic that is the culmination of the last platonic anthropology.

According to this anthropology, after the revealment of all the discourse about desire, after the unfolding of the will to enter the here-point (ενταύθα), neither the conventional daily life nor the conventional aesthetic are in any position to offer a new possibility of facing human situation; this facing is proposed by Plato’s thought to be achieved through the unconventional entrance of the aesthetic as tragic-inside daily routine. This entrance will of course, first of all declare the expectation that the experience of the opaque of the here-point will be ruptured from the discourse about the here-point; but at the same time this entrance will declare the acceptance that the discourse about the here-point will form its being inside the experience of this opaque.


The Development of the Greek Conscience as “Nietzscheism”. The Journals Techni and Dionysos

According to the journals «Techni» and «Dioynsos», Nietzsche is the last glorious expression of Hellenism, the civilization of the Ancient Greeks. The Greeks who lived at the time when these journals were published had to become aware of Hellenism as Nietzscheism and formulate a Greek national conscience the foundations of which would lie in the philosophy of Nietzsche.The above-mentioned ideological dogma of these two journals was formulated for the following reasons: since Greece was at that time in a state of decline, having been defeated by the Ottoman Empire in 1897, and since Nietzsche’s philosophy was – according to its interpretation by these journals – the philosophical expression of Bismarck’s policy which led Germany to prosperity and victory in war, Greeks had but to get acquainted with and adopt Nietzsche’s philosophy doctrines in order to overcome degeneration and decay and set out again along the path to victory. In order to achieve this goal, the two journals, in many ways, tried to make Nietzsche’s thought known to their readers and to make them adopt it.This study, furthermore, thoroughly presents all the above mentioned attempt of these two journals and finally, examining the interpretation of Nietzsche’s philosophy given by these two journals comes to the conclusion that it forms a misinterpretation.

Nea Poreia Editions, Thessaloniki 1993

The World as Play and the Problematic of a Non-Metaphysical Direction of Thought

The world as play and the problem of a non-metaphysical direction of thought; the «and» in this phrase does not mean a connection between the world as play and the problem of a non-metaphysical direction of thought that at the same time –and mostly– foretells the world as play as a landmark of a non-metaphysical direction of thought.

Moving beyond this assertion, that – following Nietzsche’s interpretation of Heraclitus – Heidegger, Fink, Axelos and Derrida uttered, our research takes that the world as play is not a landmark of a non-metaphysical direction of thought and comes to the conclusion that the problem of developing a thought that will mark a non-metaphysical direction of thought, cannot, as shown by our study of the world as play, be solved as long as we speak about the problem of a non-metaphysical thought concerning the being of the world and we ignore the problem of a non-metaphysical being of thought; as long as we ignore, or underestimate, the fact that overcoming metaphysics in the being of thought is an essential prerequisite for thought to exist beyond any form of metaphysics.

As far as the being of thought is concerned, overcoming metaphysics, is achieved through the presence of abyss (Abgrund) in the being-foundation (Grund) of thought; this, therefore entails, firstly, the transference of the presence of abyss from the thought concerning being to the being of thought and, secondly, the principal importance of abyss with regard to the being of thought in relation to the thought concerning being as foundation and abyss. And this abyss, the abyss of anonymity, cannot but in an overrate way be said to imply a non-metaphysical direction of thought, because the presence of abyss in the being-foundation of thought does not refer to thought to anywhere – nor does it direct it anywhere.

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